© Copyright 2018 Orlando Alves da Silva

© Copyright 2018 Orlando Alves da Silva

The proprioception system is a global system, therefore the manifestations of a disturbance of this system can be located in any area of the body. No clinical case will present every possible symptom at one time, but a combination of symptoms, with one or two dominant symptoms.


For example, patient A’s dominant symptom could be chronic or acute pain; patient B’s could be lack of balance; and patient C could present cognitive impairment as their dominant symptom.  Patients A, B and C, however, are diagnosed using the same proprioception dysfunction diagnostics protocol; and they respond to the same proprioception dysfunction treatment protocol.

Even within the same main type of symptoms, different areas of the body can be differently affected. For example, regarding:

1. Chronic or acute pain: a patient's main complaint could range from headaches or migraines; or neck pain, upper spine pain, or lower spine pain, including cruralgia and sciatalgia.

2. Lack of balance: a patient may present as the main symptom vertigo, dizziness, frequent falls, unsteadiness, mal de débarquement, or nausea/sickness.

3. Cognitive impairments: a patient may present as the main symptom a low attention span, poor spatial orientation, memory impairment, or difficulties in interpreting information including visual and auditory information.