Brain Mapping

Brain Mapping of awake patients with Postural Deficiency Syndrome/ Proprioception Dysfunction Syndrome (PDS) present with higher values of absolute power (μv2) in the specific low frequency wave, the Delta wave, than the values of absolute power found in higher brain wave frequencies measured (Theta, Alpha, Beta1 and Beta 2) (Figure 1a). When wearing Active Prisms, the values of absolute power obtained for the Delta frequency become similar to those encountered in the other frequencies measured (Figure 1b).


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Figure 1. Brain mapping of Postural Deficiency Syndrome/Proprioception Dysfunction Syndrome awake patient. (a) without Active Prisms; (b) wearing Active Prisms


The brain maps obtained indicate that the effect of the Active Prisms is not restricted to a specific area or areas of the brain, but that the effect is associated with a change in the specific low frequency wave, the Delta wave.  Brain mapping of PDS patients without and with Active Prisms suggests that PDS can be understood to be associated to perturbations of a particular frequency wave type (Delta wave).



Directional Coordimetry

Directional Coordimetry is a modified protocol of Classic Coordimetry.

Classic Coordimetry is a test used to study oculomotor palsy. Classic Coordimetry is carried out in spirals where coherent shifts in localisation can be observed in cases of oculomotor palsy. Directional Coordimetry is used to study the Postural Deficiency Syndrome/ Proprioception Dysfunction Syndrome (PDS).


Directional Coordimetry is carried out line by line, right to left and left to right; and up – down and down – up.  In PDS, shifts of localisation that are not coherent relative to one another, can be observed using Directional Coordimetry (Figure 2).











Figure 2. Directional Coordimetry of a Postural Deficiency Syndrome/ Proprioception Dysfunction Syndrome patient without Active Prisms and with Active Prisms from left to right and from right to left

Using Directional Coordimetry it can be observed that Active Prisms correct the localisation incoherencies, but the images are not shifted by the prismatic power. These results are unexpected when compared with those normally obtained in Classic Coordimetry.  Directional Coordimetry indicates that the potency of the Active Prisms has been absorbed by the oculomotor system.

Computerised Visual Fields

Computerised Visual Fields (also known as Computerised Static Perimetry) of patients with PDS show relative and absolute scotomas which are not characteristic of any described pathological neurovisual pattern (Figure 3). Such relative and absolute scotomas are thought to be a consequence of an altered brain visual perception due to the dysfunction of the Proprioceptive System. Both relative and absolute scotomas present in such a pattern disappear with the proprioceptive treatment.



Figure 3. Computerised Visual Fields/ Computerised Static Perimetry of two patients with PDS. Note the neurovisual pattern which is not characteristic of any known pathologies.